Sibi to Harnai and Ziarat Mountain Ranges Balochsitan
The General formation of Sibi to Harnai and Ziarat Mountain Ranges Balochistan is a series of parallel ranges which as already described, contain in their midst the narrow valleys which form the upper highlands of Balochsitan. The principal valleys in this part of the District are the Zawar or Harnai valley, which extends from the Chappar mountain to the Ganeji Rift or as it is now called Spintangi, with a length of 56 miles and an average breath of 6 miles the kach valley about 4 miles long and 1.5 miles wide, which lies between the Pil and Bibai hills, the Kowas valley which is separated from Kach by the Lawaai Kotal and ziarat valley which lies near the North-East end of the range and is the summer headquarters of the province.
The hills of this range in the district are composed chiefly of massive limestone, well exposed in Khalifat which passes into an enormous thickness of shales, Zarghun consists of corglomerate belonging to the Siwalik series and coal is found in the hill ranges South of the railway between the Chappar Hills and harnai.
The name of Zarghun is derived from Pashto word meaning “flourishing”. It lies about 15 miles East-North-East of Quetta and forms the apex of the Central Brahui range which spreads out Eastwards and South-East Ward on either of the Harnai valley.
The main ridge which separates Quetta-Pashin from Sibi stretches in a half circle from West, through North to the South East from the center of this curve another ridge stretches in a south-West direction thus forming three ridges more or less parallel to one another between these ridges are deep tangis or ravines with precipitous sides which can only be crossed with the greatest difficulty. The two highest peaks known locally as Loe Sar or Big peak (11,738 feet) and the Kuchnae Sar or little peak (11,170 feet) are both on the Quetta side of the boundary. The drainage on the Sibi side is carried off by numerous torrents flowing in the direction of Sangan. The lower slopes are thickly wooded with Juniper and an area of about 11,000 acres is preserved as a Government Forest, the locally being known as the Tor Shor reserve. The indigenous population consists of a section of the Pashtun tribes of Dumars, who are mostly pastoral.
The projected railways were two in number a broad gauge line was to be constructed for heavy traffic through the Harnai passes and a light line through the Bolan passes. Both were start from Sibi at the foot of the mountains, diverging there to unite at Quetta the two lines forming an oval with the stations of Sibi and Bostan at the opposite ends. The length of the Harnai line was about double that of the Bolan line which was to have steeper gradients and to carry only light traffic. It was decided that the work should be carried out under the military and not under the Public Works, Department and Colonel James browne who had been selected as engineer of the Harnai line and who had already made a great reputation both as an engineer and a Political officer and had great control over the wild tribes of borderland.
During the remaining months of the cold weather of 1883 a certain amount of work was done on the lower part of the line.
The portions of the two lines between Sibi and Pishin that by the Harnai valley and that by the Bolan Pass also suffered severely from floods. The latter was constructed originally under pressure of the war-scare of 1885, as a temporary line pending the completion of the Harnai valley line but it was afterwards in opposition to the advice of Sir R. Sandeman retained as a permanent line on its original alignment in the river bed. It was completed wrecked in the floods of 1890 and in November 1891 a new line was commenced, proceeding from nari Bank near Sibi, through the Mushkaf valley and joining the old line in the Bolan Pass near kohlu a distance of 57 miles.
The Harnai valley line was also constructed in the first instance without proper preliminary inquiry and the result has been that part of the Sharigh section are so unstable from recurring landslips that costly re-alignment may be necessary before the line can be regarded as a reliable means of communication.
Besides the Railway Numerous Military Roads were constructed North and East of Quetta and the great Imperial line of communication between Quetta and Dera Ghazi Khan by the Bori valley was finally completed and bridged in 1890-91. Considerable progress was also made with another Imperial line connecting Loralai with the Zhob valley with the Gumal Pass and the Punjab and roads were made between the Harnai railway station and Loralai through the Mahrab Tangi one of the grandest passes in Balochistan and between Harnai and Quetta. Altogether at the end of 1891 there were in Balochistan 1520 miles of road of which 376 miles were bridged and metaled.
The existing irrigation from the nari river near Sibi was improved by the construction of a permanent head and an underground conduit called the Zhara Karez was also completed and loans were granted on easy terms to agriculturists for construction of minor irrigation works.
Coal was discovered in 1886 in the vicinity of Khost on the right bank of the mangi river within two miles of the railway. There are five seams but only one of any practical value and that is but two feet thick. It was used on the railway and at the Khojak tunnel works. Up to the close of 1891 , 37,000 tons of coal were taken from the Khost mines, Coal was also discovered near Shahrigh and in the hills east of Quetta and the close of 1891 nearly 5000 tons had been procured from these new sources of supply.
Sources of irrigation and method of division of water in Sibi district
Sources of irrigation and method of division of water in Sibi district
The sources of irrigation in the Sibi Tehsil are streams and springs. The latter are to be met with only in mauza Tal Rekhmin of the Sibi circle. The former, which are locally known as Rods or Nalas, are of two kinds. Perennial and periodical. The latter receive their water supply from floods during rains.
Thus from the irrigation point of view ten villages of the Sibi tehsil have come to be classified under two heads. i.e (1) Ab-i-Siah mauzas or villages enjoying a perennial supply of water; (2) Sailaba mauza or villages irrigated by flood water only.
The first mentioned villages are comprised in Sangan, Sibi, Kurk, and Khajjak circles of the Tahsil and the latter in Talli and mal circles.
In the Sangan circle the lands of mauzas Pir Ismail, Laki and Sangan that were subjected to settlement survey receive their supply of water from certain perennial streams, while those of the Sibi circle (excepting tal Rekhmin) and of Kurk and Khajjak circles are irrigated with the water of the Rod-i-Nari.
There are however some mahals in the three circles under reference which comprise Sailaba lands as well. For instance, in the Sibi circle the sailaba land of mauza tal Rekhmin is irrigated with flood water of the mashkaf nala. Similarly, the sailaba lands of Bhakhra Shakar Khan and kach in the same circle and of mauza Gullu Shahr in the Kurk circle depend for their irrigation on the floods in the Rod-i-Nari.
This prehistoric process continued up to the Safi Pirak mound which dates 3000 years B.C. and even after that as we will see in the narrative which follows.
Safi Pirak Mound
Dawn Karachi of 11th March 1969 reported as follows under the heading ‘Ancient Mound Found Near Safi Pirak village Sibi ‘.
A new site has been put on the archaeological map of the world with the discovery of a mound at Safi Pirak, 10 miles South of Sibi, which has a faint resemblance to the Quetta Culture.
Safi Pirak is a mound about eight meters high covering a surface of 12 acres, twenty kilometres south of Sibi on the road to Jacobabad 1.60 Kilometre east of the Nari river.
Prof. JM. Casal, leader of the French Archaeological Mission said at the National Museum that the unique type of pottery discovered at the mound is the only type of its kind found in Pakistan. Just why and how it is there is still a mystery.
Safi Pirak he said was first noticed by a British hydrologist Mr. R.L Raikes, in late fifties when he was working for WAPDA in Baluchistan region.
Prof. Casal and six other Frenchmen were the first to conduct full scale excavations in January last year. Beside the Pottery he said he also found iron, bronze and copper, black pottery charcoal and flint blades.
The French Archaeologist said the upper levels of the site are of the period of first millennium B.C.
The wood charcoal found there will be subjected to radio carbon dating in a special laboratory outside Pakistan to determine the exact period of its origin.
Prof. Casal was introduced by Mr. Justice Ghulam ali the Director of Archaeologist Dr.F.A Khan also made brief reference to the work done by French mission in Pakistan.
This site measuring about 400 by 200 feet with a height of about 30 feet, is situated near Luni village on Usmani land about 8 miles north-east of Sibi. It has been much disturbed. Unauthorized digging by the villagers for Gold and silver coins has been going on for ages and there are deeply eroded gullies made by rains on all sides. Potsherds collected from the site represent mostly plain pottery with heavy well fired red fabric.
Decoration consists of stamped and relief designs Large handled jars and vases and spouted vessels of Sassanian type are quite common. Some polished red slipped sherds were also observed.
A silver coin of the Indo-Greek period was collected. A stone sculpture with Kharoshti or Brahmi inscription was reported to have been dug out by the villagers from the site but could not be traced. The settlement is assigned to the Buddhist period attribution consistent with the collected objects dateable from the Indo-Greek to Sassanian periods but though the villagers reported the recovery of gold and silver relics no building was traceable on the surface.
The ancient documents of Sibi Tehsil office Tax collection and original files of Government records. The records of Sibi district preserved in separate office rooms.
The Barozai section is the Sardar khel among the Pannis of Sibi. The present head of the Barozai family is Sardar Muhammad Khan who resides in mauza Kurk of the Sibi tehsil. The Barozai Sardars were often appointed as Governors of Sibi by the Mughal Emperors and they enjoy the title of “Nawab”. The also carried on the administration of Sibi on behalf of the Afghan rulers.
Purport of Sanads.
Parwana (warrant) from Ahmad Shah Durrani to Ismail Khan Pani Barozai, Governor of Sibi dated the 19th Zilhaj 1166 A.H. (1753 A.D.) to the following effect: –
Whereas all the enemies of our empire have been humbled and subdued, we are pleased to direct our attention and energies to the internal administration of the country. You are therefore hereby directed to summon to you all the chiefs, Maliks, elders and other respectable men of Sibi and the adjoining territory and instruct them to restore to their original state all villages, gardens, mills, forts, mosques and shrines which have of late fallen inti ruin and to bring under cultivation all land lying waste. In case you fail to see the above directions carried out exemplary punishment will be inflicted upon you. Should you find yourself unable to perform the above mentioned duties, you should make a report of the fact at once to us, and we would then make arrangements for some other man. If you exercise tyranny and oppression over the people, they will be at liberty to make representation to us and get you removed from your office.
Sanad dated 6th Jamadi-us-Sani 1176 A.H. (1762 A.D.) granted by Ahmad Shah Durrani to Isa khan son of Ismail Khan Pani Barozai to the following effect: –
Muhammad Khan pani Barozai and others belonging to Dasht-i-Kohi and Kakari tribes of Pani are hereby informed that Isa Khan son of Ismail khan (who laid down his life in serving our Government), nominated by us to succeed to the Government of Sibi and its dependencies and has also been honored with the title of Bakhtiar Khan. It therefore behaves all the Pani tribes, Dasht-i-Kohi and Kakari to regard Bakhtiar Khan Pani Barozai as their chief and Governor in place of the late Ismail Khan and to give him the same obedience, fealty and honor as they did to his father.
Sanad dated the 8th Muharram 1201 A.H. (1786 A.D.) bearing the seal of Timur Shah, to the effect that Ahmadyar Khan, Mahmud Khan and Muhammad Rahim Khan Panis have been granted R 5000 as an annual allowance recoverable from the revenues of mauzas Talli and Kurk. Let no one infringe this order.
Letter No. Dated 18th July 1841 A.D. from Rose Bell Political agent to the Naib Muhammad Hassan, to the effect that Shakar Khan Pani Barozai, brother of Misri Khan Pani Barozai has in support of his application, produced a Sanad bearing the seal of Mehrdil Khan Barakzai for one pao of water and 40 Kharwars of wheat, you are hereby directed to restore Misri Khan to his right if he has any.
The Barozai jagirs in the Sibi district.
The assignments which comprise the jagirs of Kurk and Sangan originated in the influential position held by the Barozai nawabs during the Mughal and Afghan occupation of the country.
The Kurk Jagir estimated value of which is Rs. 10,000/ a year was enjoyed by the Barozai Nawabs during the Afghan rule and was continued to them after the British occupation of the country. It was formally confirmed by the Government of India in January 1899 to the heirs of the Barozai Nawabs of Sibi in perpetuity subject to the condition of loyalty and good behavior. The Jagir consists of nine pao of water and land of which eight pao are owned by the Kurk and one pao by the Barozai subdivided into 21-1/2 and 3 dahanas (and 264 and 36 rahki) respectively. Of the 36 rahkis are cultivated by Musa Khan, Shakar khan and other Naudhanis and 22 rahki by other tenants. These tribes pay revenue to the Barozais at the rate of one-fourth of the produce of wheat, cotton and bhusa and one-fifth of jowari, sarshaf, sabz khurda, sawra and barley. In the case of jowari an equal amount of karbi is also taken by the Jagirdars if the cultivation is within one mile of the Kurk village but when lands beyond that distance are cultivated twelve bullock-loads of karbi per dahana are taken. In addition to the revenue the Barozais levy certain ceases (naibi, kardari, etc) aggregating 12 kasas per kharwar from each dahana.
Mizri, Kurak and Safi came to Sibi and initially lived in Gullu Shaher temporary at that time Sibi was in control of Arghun State and they were rulers of Sibi. The Panni tribes encounter in war with the Arghuns and they defeated them and after while they expelled Arghuns from Sibi. After victory they divided the land among Mizri, Kurak and Safi tribes.
The Revenue Record of Tehsil Sibi consists of Mauza Safi Pirak near Sibi city of Balochsitan Pakistan. The agricultural land of Safi Pirak having 8 Pao of Water from Nari River.
The Revenue Records of Sibi District.
The Ancient civilization existed in Safi Pirak land about 3,000 Bc seen the old coins, pottery and stone statues.
About 1511 Shah Beg Arghun marched against; Sibi to resume his fief and captured the town after a severe stuggle. After rebuilding the fort which he strongly garrisoned made his head-quarters at Shal and Sibi.
Sibi also finds place in the popular accounts of the Chahnama wherein it is narrated that the king Chah defeated Sewas, pushing them out of this place captured Sibi Fort. The Hindu rulers, Sewas had kept this territory under their control for considerable length of time, having lost ultimately to King Chah in 550 A.D. The Brahman rule continued here till the early part of eight century AD when the young Arab general, Muhammad Bin Qasim, held sway over the whole of these areas. During the 11th century Sibi was included in the vast Ghazanvide Empire.
The Muslim rule continued here as it remained a tributary of the Suba of Musltan under nasir el din Qubacha (1210-1228 AD). Accoring to Ain-e-Akbari, the Sibi Fort was conferred by Jam Nizamuddin of Sindh as fief in 1488 AD on Shah Beg Arghun, who was the ruler of Qandhar.
Towards the end of 15th century and in the beginning of 16th century A.D. Siwi Fort was ruled by Bahahdur Khan of Sindh and then by Sultan Pur-Dil Barlas whose forces were thrown out of the Fort by the forces of Shah Beg Arghun son of Zunnun Beg Arghun. In 1543 A.D. Siwi Fort was visited by the fugitive Mughal king Humayun along with his infant son Akbar, the future Great Mughal and the emperor of India.
The father and the son found the Arghuns in possession of the Fort. Mulla Mehumd Jiskani the Author of Tazkir-ul-Bar assigns 15th century A.D. for the occupation of Siwi by the Pannis. According to the Akbar Namah of Abul Fazal and Akbar Nama of Faizi Sarhindi by 1575 A.D. Panni Afghans were already in control of Siwi Fort. Therefore, must have been present in the general area of Siwi much before that date since it is likely that their conquest of Siwi would have taken some considerable time.
The Government records evidence shows that Dehpal a panni Tribe lived in Siwi Fort they possess the land adjacent to the Fort, a village Dehpal Kalan is situated near the Fort.